Ship the transfer instrument/standard/system back to the customer along with the calibration report. Yes, NIST has several series of publications that are relevant to traceability. Some of these publications appear in the list of references that begins on Page 36. NIST provides a Practical Tool for Establishing Traceability in Chemical Measurements implemented in an Excel Workbook, including instructions for use and an example data set. The redefinition of the SI approved by the 26th General Conference of Weights and Measures on November 16, 2018, generally facilitates the establishment of traceability for several units in the SI.

what is horizontal traceability

In addition, as laws to protect consumers have been implemented, the number of companies required to quickly recall their products due to problems has been increasing every year. If a product quality problem occurs, the manufacturer of the product must take effective measures promptly. 5The numbers between square brackets following each reference are clickable links that point and lead to the pages in this document where the references are cited. Collections of unevaluated data compiled by NIST scientists for various research and development purposes. Since counting is measuring, the question naturally arises about the meaning of traceability for counts, for example when one counts the number of neutrophils among 100 white blood cells in a patient’s sample . There will be no objection, however, to a statement that the manufacturer’s primary standards have been periodically calibrated by NIST, if this is actually the case, or that the customer might arrange to have NIST calibrate the item purchased from the manufacturer.

Antonio Possolo, Sally S. Bruce, Robert L. Watters, Jr.NIST Technical Note 2156

Are measurement standards recognized as references for assigning values to other standards of the property of interest, either at a national level, or by an international agreement. This is achieved directly through the provision of NIST measurement-related products and services, through collaboration with relevant organizations, through development and dissemination of technical information on traceability, and through conducting coordinated outreach programs. Persisting relationships – often knowledge of a project or product is in the head of specific persons. By use of traceability this knowledge is saved by visualizing the relation between the different artifacts. Change impact analysis – if a requirement is changing, trace links inform about related and dependent artifacts. These artifacts can easily be verified and if required be adjusted.

The values of nominal properties can be compared only by establishing equality or difference. For example,a chemical element either is or is not an alkali metal; a specific tiger has the same defining traits as other tigers, and these traits differentiate all tigers from animals of other species in the genus Panthera. The conventional position has been to say that counts are traceable to the unit 1, which is the neutral element in the SI. Referring to counts, and somewhat cryptically, the 9th edition of the SI Brochure (§2.3.3) states that “formal traceability to the SI can be established through appropriate, validated measurement procedures” . The results of calibrations and tests performed by NIST are intended solely for the use of the organization requesting them, and apply only to a particular device or specimen at the time of its test.

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Is to attest formally that traceability has been established for a specific measurement result. Collaborates on the development of standard definitions, interpretations, and recommended practices with organizations that have authority and responsibility for variously defining, specifying, assuring, or certifying metrological traceability. Belanger et al. provide an overview of the early development of the concept of metrological traceability at NIST. The longstanding commitment of NIST to traceability as a foundation stone in the reliability and overall quality of measurement is amply illustrated in numerous contributions to different areas of measurement, including , , , , , and , among others. This is done to ensure that the requirements/functionalities as in the Specification are all documented as test case.

Is to provide support for the claim of traceability of a particular measurement result. Requirements come from different sources, like the business person ordering the product, the marketing manager and the actual user. Using requirements traceability, an implemented feature can be traced back to the person or group that wanted it during the requirements elicitation. This can be used during the development process to prioritize the requirement, determining how valuable the requirement is to a specific user. It can also be used after the deployment to see why certain unused features found during user studies were required in the first place. These experiences, and in particular the iMedea example described in the Materials and Methods section, demonstrate how effectively the proposed approach addresses challenge Ch.4.


Traceability is defined by Drivalos-Matragkas et al. as the ability to chronologically interrelate uniquely identifiable entities in a way that matters. This very general definition pointing out the usefulness such interrelationships should have was later adapted by Lago, Muccini & van Vliet with reference to the life of software artifacts. CMMI defines bidirectional traceability as “an association among two or more logical entities that is discernable in either direction”. This definition emphasizes the potential of traces in the requirements engineering domain, where traceability had its origin. However, there are some problems and obstacles that will continue to limit the use of traceability approaches and delay the adoption of research prototypes in industry.

Additionally, we are able to tell which set of the lower level requirements must be implemented in order to have the higher level requirement fulfilled. This in turn, allows us to determine consequences of making changes to particular requirements, or removing some of them altogether. Being aware of how the requirements relate to each other allows us to know which elements are connected to the bit we want to change or remove.

An Introduction to Requirements Traceability

Typical analysis functions based on recorded traceability information are, e.g., completeness checks i.e. do all system level requirements go down to equipment level , assessment of requirements deviations over all levels, and qualification status presentation. In order to ensure traceability to artifact types beyond requirements, RM tools often allow to import other artifacts as surrogate requirements that can then be traced with the tool’s requirements tracing methods. The disadvantage of this approach is that different adapters or converters for the different artifact types are necessary that need to have a consistent version and data format. In contrast to ALM tools this consistency must be carried out oneself.

what is horizontal traceability

Naturally, the relation between a given requirement and other artifacts is not the only relation that may occur. There are also relations between particular artifacts, like for example, between design and the code which implements it or between the code and the test procedure which is there to verify its correctness. In general, the Certificate also contains a disclaimer for improper handling of a material.

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An internal measurement assurance program for establishing the status of the reference used to calibrate the measurement system or working standard when it was most recently calibrated. Are either homogeneous materials or stable artifacts that are used to test and evaluate the measurement performance of different measuring systems when they are employed in specific tasks. Horizontal trace-ability matrix documents the inter-dependency between requirements. Once dependency identified it will be easy perform impact analysis. In addition, vertical traceability allows managers to understand the effect on key program and G/R milestones if their lower-level activities are delayed. An activity owner should be able to trace activities to higher-level milestones within intermediate and summary schedules.

what is horizontal traceability

Furthermore, redundant test cases can be identified and eliminated. Reuse of product components – it is possible to structure requirements and their linked artifacts in packages. Goknil A, Kurtev I, Van Den Berg K. Generation and validation of traces between requirements and architecture based on formal trace semantics. In the matrix, the developer could click on “Fill in personal patient data” to navigate to this artifact and perform the appropriate act to keep the traceability consistent. Interaction Flow Model , which provided the relationships with all the other models and was the basis from which the architecture model was derived. Methodology Expert is the person who manages or defines a concrete methodology M and who will implement the extension of M in the corresponding tool in order to support traceability.

Manual traceability

In this regard, it can be confirmed that MDE provides solutions for challenges Ch.1. Tool support for trace model maintenance, cited in “Materials and Methods”. This paper also demonstrates how the approach implements the automatic tracing of information; a task critical for information fusion.

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